The content below contains the first few paragraphs of the printed article and the titles of the sidebars and boxes, if applicable. At the same time, biomedical knowledge is expanding rapidly, but the existing drug-discovery process is unable to keep pace. The industry needs to fix what is broken, and the solution, our experts say, is in the evolution of a virtual business model.
Toxicology[ edit ] Toxicology is the study of the adverse effectsmolecular targets, and characterization of drugs or any chemical substance in excess including those beneficial in lower doses. Theoretical pharmacology[ edit ] Theoretical pharmacology is a relatively new and rapidly expanding field of research activity in which many of the techniques of computational chemistry, in particular computational quantum chemistry and the method of molecular mechanics, are proving to be of great value.
Theoretical pharmacologists aim at rationalizing the relation between the activity of a particular drug, as observed experimentally, and its structural features as derived from computer experiments. They aim to find structure—activity relations.
Furthermore, on the basis of the structure of a given organic molecule, the theoretical pharmacologist aims at predicting the biological activity of new drugs that are of the same general type as existing drugs. More ambitiously, it aims to predict entirely new classes of drugs, tailor-made for specific purposes.
Posology[ edit ] Posology is the study of how medicines are dosed. This depends upon various factors including age, climate, weight, sex, elimination rate of drug, genetic polymorphism and time of administration. There is a close collaboration between environmental science and medicine in addressing these issues, as healthcare itself can be a cause of environmental damage or remediation.
Human health and ecology are intimately related. Demand for more pharmaceutical products may place the public at risk through the destruction of species. The entry of chemicals and drugs into the aquatic ecosystem is a more serious concern today.
In addition, the production of some illegal drugs pollutes drinking water supply by releasing carcinogens. Experimental pharmacology[ edit ] Experimental pharmacology involves the study of pharmacology through bioassayto test the efficacy and potency of a drug.
Dental pharmacology[ edit ] Dental pharmacology relates to the study of drugs commonly used in the treatment of dental disease.
With the knowledge of cell biology and biochemistry increasing, the field of pharmacology has also changed substantially. It has become possible, through molecular analysis of receptorsto design chemicals that act on specific cellular signaling or metabolic pathways by affecting sites directly on cell-surface receptors which modulate and mediate cellular signaling pathways controlling cellular function.
A chemical has, from the pharmacological point-of-view, various properties. Pharmacokinetics describes the effect of the body on the chemical e. When describing the pharmacokinetic properties of the chemical that is the active ingredient or active pharmaceutical ingredient APIpharmacologists are often interested in L-ADME: Liberation — How is the API disintegrated for solid oral forms breaking down into smaller particlesdispersed, or dissolved from the medication?
Absorption — How is the API absorbed through the skinthe intestinethe oral mucosa? Distribution — How does the API spread through the organism? Metabolism — Is the API converted chemically inside the body, and into which substances. Are these active as well? Could they be toxic?
Excretion — How is the API excreted through the bile, urine, breath, skin? Medication is said to have a narrow or wide therapeutic index or therapeutic window. This describes the ratio of desired effect to toxic effect. A compound with a narrow therapeutic index close to one exerts its desired effect at a dose close to its toxic dose.
A compound with a wide therapeutic index greater than five exerts its desired effect at a dose substantially below its toxic dose. Those with a narrow margin are more difficult to dose and administer, and may require therapeutic drug monitoring examples are warfarinsome antiepilepticsaminoglycoside antibiotics.
Most anti- cancer drugs have a narrow therapeutic margin: Medicine development and safety testing[ edit ] Development of medication is a vital concern to medicinebut also has strong economical and political implications. To protect the consumer and prevent abuse, many governments regulate the manufacture, sale, and administration of medication.
In the United Statesthe main body that regulates pharmaceuticals is the Food and Drug Administration and they enforce standards set by the United States Pharmacopoeia. In the European Unionthe main body that regulates pharmaceuticals is the EMA and they enforce standards set by the European Pharmacopoeia.
The metabolic stability and the reactivity of a library of candidate drug compounds have to be assessed for drug metabolism and toxicological studies. Many methods have been proposed for quantitative predictions in drug metabolism; one example of a recent computational method is SPORCalc.
This means that when a useful activity has been identified, chemists will make many similar compounds called analogues, in an attempt to maximize the desired medicinal effect s of the compound.
This development phase can take anywhere from a few years to a decade or more and is very expensive. It needs to be determined how safe the medicine is for human consumption, its stability in the human body and the best form for delivery to the desired organ system, like tablet or aerosol.
After extensive testing, which can take up to 6 years, the new medicine is ready for marketing and selling. To recoup this outlay pharmaceutical companies may do a number of things:Virtual Medicine [Keith Scott-Mumby] on caninariojana.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
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