See Article History Energy conversion, the transformation of energy from forms provided by nature to forms that can be used by humans. Over the centuries a wide array of devices and systems has been developed for this purpose.
Streetlights in the skiing resort Kastelruth in South Tyrol. Medical research on the effects of excessive light on the human body suggests that a variety of adverse health effects may be caused by light pollution or excessive light exposure, and some lighting design textbooks  use human health as an explicit criterion for proper interior lighting.
Health effects of over-illumination or improper spectral composition of light may include: Seoul, which had the highest levels of light pollution, had This suggested a high correlation between ALAN and the prevalence of breast cancer.
It was also found that there was no correlation between other types of cancer such as cervical or lung cancer and ALAN levels. Even if these effects are relatively small from night to night, continuous chronic circadian, sleep and hormonal disruption may have longer-term health risks".
News about the decision emphasized glare as a public health hazard leading to unsafe driving conditions.
Especially in the elderly, glare produces loss of contrast, obscuring night vision. Ecological light pollution When artificial light affects organisms and ecosystems it is called ecological light pollution. While light at night can be beneficial, neutral, or damaging for individual speciesits presence invariably disturbs ecosystems.
For example, some species of spiders avoid lit areas, while other species are happy to build their spider web directly on a lamp post.
This is a simple example of the way in which species frequencies and food webs can be disturbed by the introduction of light at night. Light pollution poses a serious threat in particular to nocturnal wildlife, having negative impacts on plant and animal physiology. It can confuse animal navigationalter competitive interactions, change predator-prey relations, and cause physiological harm.
For example, lepidopterists and entomologists have documented that nighttime light may interfere with the ability of moths and other nocturnal insects to navigate.
Lampyridae, Phengodidae and Elateridae are especially interesting study objects for light pollution, once they depend on their own light to reproduce and, consequently, are very sensitive to environmental levels of light.
These nocturnal animals are very susceptible to light and its effects. A study  also suggests deleterious impacts on animals and ecosystems because of perturbation of polarized light or artificial polarization of light even during the day, because direction of natural polarization of sun light and its reflection is a source of information for a lot of animals.
This form of pollution is named polarized light pollution PLP. Unnatural polarized light sources can trigger maladaptive behaviors in polarization-sensitive taxa and alter ecological interactions. Estimates by the U. Fish and Wildlife Service of the number of birds killed after being attracted to tall towers range from 4 to 5 million per year to an order of magnitude higher.
Similar disorientation has also been noted for bird species migrating close to offshore production and drilling facilities. Studies carried out by Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij b. In earlythe lights were installed on the Shell production platform L It is a common misconception that hatchling sea turtles are attracted to the moon.
Rather, they find the ocean by moving away from the dark silhouette of dunes and their vegetation, a behavior with which artificial lights interfere.
Introduced light sources during normally dark periods can disrupt levels of melatonin production. Melatonin is a hormone that regulates photoperiodic physiology and behaviour. Some species of frogs and salamanders utilize a light-dependent "compass" to orient their migratory behaviour to breeding sites.
Introduced light can also cause developmental irregularities, such as retinal damage, reduced juvenile growth, premature metamorphosis,  reduced sperm production, and genetic mutation.
It dealt with bats, turtles, the "hidden" harms of LAN, and many other topics.
The following is an excerpt from that article, called "Electricity and English songbirds": An English journal has become alarmed at the relation of electricity to songbirds, which it maintains is closer than that of cats and fodder crops. How many of us, it asks, foresee that electricity may extirpate the songbird?
With the exception of the finches, all the English songbirds may be said to be insectivorous, and their diet consists chiefly of vast numbers of very small insects which they collect from the grass and herbs before the dew is dry.
As the electric light is finding its way for street illumination into the country parts of England, these poor winged atoms are slain by thousands at each light every warm summer evening The fear is expressed, that when England is lighted from one end to the other with electricity the song birds will die out from the failure of their food supply.
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Astronomy is very sensitive to light pollution. The night sky viewed from a city bears no resemblance to what can be seen from dark skies. This is one factor that has caused newer telescopes to be built in increasingly remote areas.Water conservation at power and industrial plants continues to increase in importance, as fresh water supplies become more scarce.
Also, industrial wastewater discharge quality has received increased scrutiny due to environmental impacts.
A major aim of Energy and Environment is to act as a forum for constructive and professional debate between scientists and technologists, social scientists and economists from academia, government and the energy industries on energy and environment issues in both a national and international context.
It is also the aim to include the informed and environmentally concerned public and their. CLP has put together a short list of the most popular conservation grants below. For a comprehensive and well maintained resource, the Terra Viva Grants Directory develops and manages information about grants for agriculture, energy, environment, and natural resources in the world’s developing countries.
Graduates and students are welcome to apply for placements through an internship or traineeship, with the aim to enrich their knowledge with the practical experience of working in hands-on field research and conservation projects (see below the possible project areas). The Problem. Digital tools have put shoppers in the driver’s seat, allowing them to easily research and compare products, place orders, and get doorstep delivery of their items.
Energy conversion, the transformation of energy from forms provided by nature to forms that can be used by humans.. Over the centuries a wide array of devices and systems has been developed for this purpose. Some of these energy converters are quite simple.