Overview[ edit ] This article focuses on the awakening that took place during the nineteenth century in America. So far, it also includes material about Korea. A similar awakening took place in Britainidentified by J.
Its practitioners adhered to the scientific method of testing hypotheses through rigorous, repeatable experimentation. Ancient Greeks, inventors of the first organized sporting events the Olympicsalso promoted hard-nosed, constructive debate and organized competition in law, politics, philosophy, and science.
Scientific research, in other words, takes for granted the insufficiency of old knowledge. Science and technology fused in the Renaissance when the Florentine Medicis patronized weapons research by Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, leading to advances in optics and physics, and alchemists helped jumpstart legitimate chemistry by trying to make synthetic gold.
Then, like now, war and money spurred science, with ramifications spilling over into medicine, astronomy, and even political science.
Enlightenment science ultimately brought us hydrogen bombs and the missiles to deliver them on. Is partially unfulfilled idealism worse than no idealism at all?
Like the Renaissance and Dark Ages, the Enlightenment is one of those historical tags that lends itself to biased agenda-driven oversimplifications, highlighting some themes while concealing others. Yet, people who lived through it were aware of a new age being ushered in. The Age of Exploration Chapter 2 was key to the Enlightenment because it opened up a global inventory of data to European scientists.
Exploration also brought coffee to Europe — the signature drink of the Enlightenment.
Just as Europeans imported and modified gunpowder, printing, shipbuilding, and math to their benefit during the Renaissance, they imported and modified the Arabic coffeehouse during the Enlightenment. Dutch merchants who grew coffee in Java Indonesia imported beans to New York in and coffeehouses assumed a social and political role in colonial America similar to taverns, even though most Americans drank tea in the home.
Scholars during the Late Renaissance and Enlightenment started to question all dogma — be it philosophical, scientific, political, or religious — building on rather than just revering and reviving Classical knowledge.
Meanwhile, they continued to import ideas along with coffee from Arabia and Persia. Biruni, who centuries ahead of his time hypothesized about the existence of the American continent, was in turn well-versed in Classical scholars like Aristotle and Ptolemy.
The Great Awakeningon the other hand, spurs less scholarly controversy. Like the Enlightenment, Christianity was used both to support and denounce slavery.
Paris was the epicenter of the Enlightenment, but its philosophes lived throughout Europe, the British Isles, and small but enthusiastic outposts in colonial America. They disagreed that God chose certain people to rule over others and instead promoted representative government — an idea that had been mostly dormant in Western history since Classical times but had been reviving in England and a few small pockets in continental Europe during the Renaissance.
This is a vivid and important example of Enlightenment thinkers reexamining traditional wisdom. Along with free trade, representative government was a cornerstone of Classical liberalism.
Locke and Jefferson were concerned with the political representation of middle-class men and above, but their descendants applied democracy more broadly.
You can see why Enlightenment critics see its philosophy as merely a self-serving justification for white male hegemony ; yet, you can also see how its ideas contained the seeds of a more universal revolution.
With the republican genie out of the bottlewhite male elites found it increasingly difficult to explain why they should run roughshod over everyone else. Enlightenment political theory was also concerned with balance — reflected in the U. Politics, like science, was a vehicle for progress and making the world a better place.
Deists were religious, to be sure, but they rejected two central tenants of traditional religion.The awakening in numerous cities in was interrupted by the American Civil War. In the South, on the other hand, the Civil War stimulated revivals, especially the Confederate States Army revival in General Robert E.
Lee 's army. American Civil War Introduction The American Civil War is always remembered as central event in the history of the United States of America. The revolution of to resulted in the creation of the America but what kind of nation the America would have, was determined by the civil war of .
Although the Great Awakening was a reaction against the Enlightenment, it was also a long term cause of the Revolution. Before, ministers represented an upper class of sorts.
Awakening ministers were not always ordained, breaking down respect for betters. Religious revivals during the American Civil War (–) were characterized by surges in religious interest and observance among large numbers of soldiers in both the Union and Confederate armies.
Although they came not long after the Second Great Awakening, which was primarily a Baptist and. The First Great Awakening was not the American Revolution, but it was an American revolution. I would like to express my thanks to Dr. Harry S. Stout and Dr. Kenneth P. Minkema for their guidance in the formulation of this paper.
My interest was immediately aroused, and I'm very glad I purchased "The Civil War Awakening". To read this detailed account of the first year of the Civil War provided me with a fresh perspective.